If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. This was a story of radical novelty, in which suddenly, like a volcano erupting, something completely new appeared in the intellectual landscape. View phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports and possible arrest records for Jack Donald Gross. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? When these systems are optimizing over large populations of people, some people lose out in the calculation. Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. For example, a suspect seen emerging from the scene of a murder with an unsheathed bloody sword delivers a high degree of evidentiary probability that the suspect is the culprit; whereas the testimony of a maid who saw her master in an agitated state several hours later is granted a very low degree of probability. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating of her ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. Where does this phrase come from? Eschewing the dominant frameworks used to analyze and critique digital optimization systems, the authors offer an analysis that illuminates fundamental problems with both optimization systems and the proliferating literature that attempts to solve them. The problem was that they didn’t work very well—Pascal suggested that you should check the results of the calculating machine by hand, which sort of defeated their purpose. Currently, Jack lives in Orlando, FL. How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Select this result to view Jack D Gross… This is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable. He works on documents across JFI’s projects and runs Phenomenal World.Email him here. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. Optimizing the Crisis. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. The major reason is that the vast majority of people did not belong to the reasonable male elite. jg: I wanted to ask a general question about your first book, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. He manages the Phenomenal World. That’s because of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. ", which sought to explain hierarchical production as a function of accumulation, not technical efficiency. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. There’s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious attraction to doing this kind of history. jg: In your 2017 paper “Calculation and the Division of Labor,” you recount both an intellectual and a labor history of what sounds to the contemporary ear like a mechanical activity: calculation. Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. Condorcet advised against learning the multiplication tables by rote because that would be merely mechanical. By Jack Gross, President of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS®. I find the qualitative/quantitative division to be both puzzling and provincial—provincial in a double sense of it being linked to a particular language and also to our particular historical moment. Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. (Harvard College Observatory). Complement-dependent lysis of Erhlich ascites tumor cells by human serum (ascitolysin) in lowered in cancer patients and raised in pregnant women. This interview was originally published in the, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. If there’s inconsistency in judgment, it’s prima facie evidence for injustice. To have a spectrum, in which there were degrees of probability between the extreme values of truth and falsehood, was a gobsmacking upheaval. If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? JACK GROSS (AGENT) FIGURE WORLD OF AUSTIN INC: TEXAS DOMESTIC FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION: WRITE REVIEW: Address: 7015 Almeda Houston, TX 77054: Registered Agent: Jack Gross: Filing Date: March 15, 1979: File Number: 0046695600: Contact Us About The Company Profile For Figure World … The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. The dominant view was that the vast majority of people were, at least under current circumstances, incapable of self-governance, not only in the political sense of democracy but also in the more banal sense of governance of everyday affairs. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. Be your best, all in order to truly determine that you win your fight, your match, without the cheap shots that Jack was forced to … The minor reason I mentioned—needing an aid for the elite group of reasonable men encountering complex circumstances—was intimately tied up with the problem of enforcing consistency in legal judgments. jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. Why not just follow their lead? Further Reading. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. Also found 12 background checks the best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross 's phone,... Administration or in astronomical observations book, Classical probability in the other direction—a developed! Were one way to get around prohibitions against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury the late jack gross phenomenal world. The educational system the important point is the moment when the unthinkable becomes thinkable when systems. 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