In the 1960s the cul-de-sac attained systematic international application in planned new cities such as Doxiadis' Islamabad (1960). The western part of the excavated village, where the workers lived, shows fifteen narrow and short dead-ends laid out perpendicularly on either side of a wider, straight street; all terminate at the enclosing walls. The village is laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a grid but irregular. Loss of orientation and sense of direction is also a common experience in older cities with cul-de-sac streets (Medina of Arab cities or Mediterranean hill towns) as well as in cities with highly irregular block geometries and sizes and corresponding street alignments that produce a labyrinthine effect. Residential area street configuration can assist its emergence only by reducing through traffic and increasing local pedestrian movement; a design goal for which connected cul-de-sac and looped streets are suited. 1. See more. Silk Road, ancient trade route, linking China with the West, that carried goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China. [36] "Community" is viewed as a dynamic social and cultural construct, especially in contemporary, open, multicultural cities. 6. (The "dead end" signs currently at Sutton Place are bright yellow with black lettering. Garden cities in the UK that followed Hampstead, such as Welwyn Garden City, all included culs-de-sac (see photo). While this more permeable version can be applied in new developments easily, modifying existing impermeable cul-de-sac streets is problematic as it encounters property ownership issues. In the UK, new towns such as Harlow (1947) by Sir Frederick Gibberd and Milton Keynes (1967) incorporated culs-de-sac and crescents in their layouts. Priority Road Signs in Germany. end of the road This slang phrase, as a free translation from Hebrew, is used to describe a great and wonderful thing. The country's Federal Housing Authority (FHA) recommended and promoted their use through their 1936 guidelines[7] and the power of lending development funds. the results of someone's actions that cannot be avoided In general, a “travel lane” is 9 – 10 feet, so the most narrow requirements are 18 – 20 feet of pavement. When culs-de-sac are interconnected with foot and bike paths, as for example in Vauban, Freiburg and Village Homes in Davis, California, they can increase active modes of mobility among their residents.[21]. U.S. Federal Highway Administration rules state: "The Dead End sign may be used at the entrance of a single road or street that terminates in a dead end or cul-de-sac. [11] They also choose these discontinuous network patterns of cul-de-sac and loop streets because of the often significant economies in infrastructure costs compared to the grid plan. At one end of the chain there will be a free 3' … It was used for dead-end streets since 1800 in English (since the 14th century in French). This design feature reflects the predominance of pedestrian movement for local trips at the turn of the 20th century, and presages the current planning priority for increased pedestrian accessibility. In Canada, "cul-de-sac" is commonly used in speech but "no exit" or "no through road" is more common in road signs, especially in western Canada. Road definition: A road is a long piece of hard ground which is built between two places so that people... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples These ends occur because of the way in which the NUCLEOTIDES are joined together in a POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN by PHOSPHODIESTER BONDS. It found that 82% of cul-de-sac residents preferred their own street type, 18% preferred a loop, and 0% the grid. A recent variation of limiting traffic is the managed closure by using retractable bollards that are activated only by designated card holders. Cul-de-sac and loop streets can reduce the size of any given neighbourhood to a single street. The incentives, which were discontinued in the 1970s, gave the initial impetus for the application of the hierarchical pattern. Roundabout definition, circuitous or indirect, as a road, journey, method, statement or person. All the neighboring peoples across the … 5. Read more about the Silk Road here. Circles , ellipses are formed from closed curves. The most famous Roman road is the Appian Way (Via Appia) between Rome and Capua, built by the censor Appius Claudius (later, known as Ap.Claudius Caecus 'blind') in 312 B.C., site of his descendant Clodius Pulcher's murder. In Stock - Usually ships same or next business day. I ought to mention here that to keep traffic out of residential streets is necessary not only in the general interest of the population, but, above all, for the sake of the children, whose health (amongst the working classes) is mainly dependent on the opportunity of moving about in close connection with their dwelling places, without the danger of being run over. George Orwell wrote in his 1946 article "Politics and the English Language" that the term "cul de sac" is another foreign word used in English as pretentious diction and is unnecessary. However, recent research on obesity and urban planning suggests that to be a possible advantage because it enables children to get daily physical activity. The No Outlet sign may be used at the entrance to a road or road network from which there is no other exit." : examining the evidence /Committee on Physical Activity, Health, Transportation, and Land Use, Transportation noun a long, narrow stretch with a smoothed or paved surface, made for traveling by motor vehicle, carriage, etc., between two or more points; street or highway. See End Road Work Signs in our catalog on page 58. End Road Work Signs are horizontal rectangle shaped. )[49], In New York City, as of 2008, there were 4,659 "dead end" traffic signs, along with 160 "no outlet" signs. Clarence Stein, a main proponent of the movement, incorporated it in the Radburn, New Jersey subdivision, which was to become a model for subsequent neighborhood developments. China also received Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism (from India) via the route. Did You Know? In the development context and planning literature of North America, cul-de-sacs have been associated with low-density residential development. A dead end, also known as a cul-de-sac (/ ˈkʌldəsæk, ˈkʊl -/, from French for 'bag-bottom'), no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. What does take the high road expression mean? From whale +‎ road, after Old English hranrād.. Noun []. 4. A frontage road is a deviation from a highway and gives indirect access to abutting property along a freeway. CPTED planning principles suggest increased natural surveillance and sense of ownership as a means of fostering security in a neighbourhood. That view has in turn been characterized as unrealistic. Similar studies in Europe[18] and Australia[19] found that children's outdoor play is significantly reduced on through roads where traffic is, or perceived by parents to be, a risk. Resident traffic is naturally channelled to minor residential collectors and to arterials that provide inter-neighbourhood and inter-district connectivity. Some roads do not have speed signs, such as unsealed roads and roads in remote areas. "Politics and the English Language". A survey of residents on three types of streets: cul-de-sac, loop, and through (grid) recorded their preferences among these types. It is argued that, since only very few of all non-locals passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety.[32]. The Varsity Village and Braeside, subdivisions in Calgary, Alberta also used the Radburn model in the late 1960s. "We tell New Yorkers the truth: it's a 'dead end', and we think that motorists get the point quickly."[49]. an increased risk of the parents accidentally driving over the children in front of their own homes. The city records, which go back to the 1960s, show only a couple of "no exit" signs once existing near the approaches to the Midtown Tunnel, and which are no longer there. Typically, there is one or several central roads in the subdivision with many cul-de-sac streets of varying length, branching out from the main roads, to fill the land in the subdivision, a dendrite or hierarchical pattern. DEFINITIONS 1 1 the moment when someone or something has to stop, for example because they cannot succeed or improve It looks like the peace process has come to the end of the line. As traffic volumes increase and as cities decide to remove or reduce traffic on specific streets of central areas, streets are closed off using bollards or landscaping thus creating new, originally unplanned dead ends and producing a new, functional blend of the inherited grid with newer street types. New research has expanded the discussion on the disputed issue. Neighbourhoods can be defined by geographic boundaries but more often it is shared ethnic, socioeconomic and cultural characteristics that create social cohesion irrespective of apparent physical "boundaries." In the 1920s, the garden city movement gained ground in the United States and, with it, came its design elements, such as the cul-de-sac. The impermeable cul-de-sac not only discourages walking and biking but also increases the length of car trips by the circuitous geometry of the dendrite network structure of which it is a part. In Stock - Usually ships same or next business day. The second, focused on trails and greenbelts, found that other amenities including cul-de-sac streets add significantly to the home value. ", "Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of children's active free-play: a cross-sectional study", "Shadyside's wooden street paves its way to greatness | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette", "Cul-de-Sacs Are Killing Us: Public Safety Lessons From Suburbia", "Richtlinien für die Sicherung von Arbeitsstellen an Straßen RSA-95 (Übersicht alte und neue Verkehrszeichen)", "George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language," 1946", "George Orwell: Politics and the English Language", "cul-de-sac - Definition of cul-de-sac in US English by Oxford Dictionaries", "Policies and Standards for Geographical Naming in Western Australia", Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway, Comparison of MUTCD-influenced traffic signs, Comparison of traffic signs in English-speaking countries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dead_end_(street)&oldid=996466004, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Sustainable development theorists and proponents claim that to be, in some undefined way, inefficient. a way or course: the road to peace. Research Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The first found a 29% premium over the streets in a grid. In military parlance, a "cul-de-sac" refers to a situation where an army is "hemmed in on all sides but behind". "..."narrowness and enclosure and intimacy bring a feeling of safety to Roslyn Place... “Stay on our street” is all the kids have to know. Definition: Road transport means transportation of goods and personnel from one place to the other on roads. Inroad definition is - an advance or penetration often at the expense of someone or something —usually used in plural. Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. The impermeability deficiency of the typical cul-de-sac street can be addressed by applying a modified, improved version of it, mentioned above, that enables pedestrian and bicycle through movement. A few years before the (virtually) gang warfare that led to Clodius' death, the road was the site of the crucifixion of the followers of Spartacus when the … (Definition of dead end from the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) dead end | Business English In such earlier urban development, alleys were included to allow for deliveries of soiled supplies, such as coal, to the rear of houses that are now heated by electricity, piped natural gas or oil. Meets M.U.T.C.D. ‘if the lawsuit is not dropped it could be the end of the road for the publisher’ More example sentences ‘A meeting will take place today to decide if it is the end of the road … The average car or pickup is 5.5 – 6.5 feet wide, and dump trucks and school buses are 7 feet. What does fork in the road mean? "We hear that some towns use 'no outlet' instead of 'dead end' because they think it sounds less morbid," New York City Commissioner of Transportation Janette Sadik-Khan said in 2008. Longer walking distances, however, reduce interest to use buses especially when a car is available. approach. Gated communities, whose numbers steadily increase worldwide, use cul-de-sac and loop street networks because the dendrite structure reduces the number of through roads and thus the corresponding number of entries and exits that need to be controlled. Negotiators have reached a dead end (= have not been successful and cannot go further) in their attempts to find a peaceful solution. More recently, No Outlet has been shown on some signs as well (an example being Meyers Avenue south of Eureka Street in the Pine Hills area). Weighing available evidence has led a few US cities including Austin, Texas; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Portland, Oregon, to restrict and regulate the inclusion of cul-de-sac streets in new suburbs. The overprovision of poorly used permeability is a crime hazard. A simple curve can be open and closed both. The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology and traffic signs include many different alternatives. [13] In Canada, a similar incentive was provided to developers by CMHC. We have, in our medieval towns, showing very commendable methods of cutting up the land. [48] The term "cul-de-sac" generally only refers to a reasonably short street with a bulbous end, or even only to the end portion. [50] "Cul-de-sac" is also used metaphorically to mean a line of thought or action that leads nowhere. The earliest examples of dead ends were unearthed in the El-Lahun workers' village in Egypt, which was built circa 1885 BC. It was in the United Kingdom that the cul-de-sac street type was first legislated into use, with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906. This is the second-largest road network in the world, after the United States with 6,645,709 kilometres (4,129,452 mi). In New Zealand dead-end streets are sometimes signposted as "No Exit", but are often not signposted at all. From an environmental perspective, culs-de-sac allow greater flexibility than the common grid in adapting to the natural grades of a site and to its ecologically sensitive features, such as streams creeks and mature forest growth. Wools, gold, and silver went east. A study in California examined the amount of child play that occurred on the streets of neighbourhoods with different characteristics; grid pattern and culs-de-sac. This increases fuel consumption and vehicle emissions and has negative effects on health by reducing walking and cycling rates. For example, a city could encourage culs-de-sac combined with pedestrian walkways." See Synonyms at intention. Real estate developers prefer culs-de-sac because they allow builders to fit more houses into oddly-shaped tracts of land and facilitate building to the edges of rivers and property lines. It is also increasingly popular in Latin America, Western Europe, and China. Frontage roads run parallel to expressways or highways. For that [arrangement] is difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when attacking. Suffixes for these types of streets include "court", "close" or "place". Vienna Convention sign (most countries use a variant of this sign), Southern African Development Community countries (BW, LS, MW, MZ, NA, ZA, SZ, TZ, ZM, ZW), "Cul-de-sac" redirects here. The Ancients in All Towns were for having some intricate Ways and turn again Streets [i.e., dead ends or loops], without any Passage through them, that if an Enemy comes into them, he may be at a Loss, and be in Confusion and Suspense; or if he pushes on daringly, may be easily destroyed. Priority road signs in Germany are designed to clarify who has priority at the junction / road ahead. More convincing about its workability for their permanent residents are the case histories of cities such as Regensburg that show a gradual transformation of an imported or imposed orthogonal, "legible" grid to the traditional "confusing" street networks.[35]. end [AS. This design combination is shown in the Village Homes layout and is an integral part of the Fused Grid. Nonetheless, police and fire departments now use advanced GPS systems that quickly locate the destination and the shortest path to follow. Culs-de-sac, especially those that also cut off pedestrian connections instead of limiting only road traffic, have also been criticised for negative effects on safety because they decrease the amount of through traffic (vehicular or pedestrian) that might spot an accident or crime victim in need of help. [citation needed], Dead-end streets also appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome. The studies recommend the use of the cul-de-sac or strong traffic calming measures. The desirability of the cul-de-sac street type among home buyers is implied by the evidence that they often pay up to a 20% premium for a home on such a street, according to one study. (Special report ; 282), Taming the Flow—Better Traffic and Safer Neighbourhoods. Results vary considerably among them, but there is general agreement on a number of key correlations:[30][31] a) the wealthier and the larger the family is the more cars they own and the more they drive, b) the farther away a family lives from the city centre and the fewer the jobs in the vicinity plus a slow bus service the more they drive, and c) street patterns may add a 10% length to local trips but the total VKTs are affected more by the "macro" urban than the "micro" neighbourhood structure. Most common to be used by teens these days. It showed that the cul-de-sac street with the lowest traffic of the three streets had the highest level of social interaction. In effect, this removes the discontinuity aspect for these modes of transport. Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes)Rate this definition: End of the Road "End of the Road" is a song recorded in May 1992 by Boyz II Men for the Motown label. Bill Hillier, Ozlem Sahbaz March 2008 Bartlett School of Graduate StudiesUniversity College London, Traditional Neighborhood Development: Will the Traffic Work?Presentation by Walter Kulash at the 11th Annual Pedestrian Conference in Bellevue WA, October 1990, Orwell, George. In this pattern, there are only a few roads (relative to the number of cul-de-sac streets) leading out of the subdivision and into other subdivisions or onto major roads. Written and produced by Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, Antonio "L.A." Reid and Daryl Simmons. Unwin's applications of the cul-de-sac and the related crescent always included pedestrian paths independent of the road network. Acknowledging their use, Germany, under the 2009 amendment to the Road Traffic Act, introduced an additional sign for culs-de-sac that are permeable to pedestrians and cyclists[37] (see under signage below). ("No outlet" is another alternative name used on street signs.). The transformation of grid plans since the 1970s limits access to an existing road that is newly designated as a major artery, enabling traffic to move smoothly on it, alleviating residents' concerns. Even in the 21st century, developments rarely achieve densities above 5 to 7 units per acre (12 to 17 per hectare) in the suburbs. Since the end of World War II,[11] new subdivisions in the United States and Canada, as well as New Towns in England and other countries have made extensive use of the cul-de-sac and crescent (loops) street types. Definition of take the high road in the Idioms Dictionary. phrase. ende] A termination; an extremity. Road definition is - roadstead —often used in plural. The investment required in road transport is very … The point in time when an action, event, or phenomenon ceases or is completed; the conclusion: the end of the day. Learn more. families living on dead-end streets drive longer distances to reach their destinations, parents living on dead-end streets spend less time teaching their children to be as wary of traffic, and. Mehaffy et al. [46] The often heard erroneous folk etymology "arse/ass [buttocks] of the sack" is based on the modern meaning of cul in French, Catalan, and Occitan, but cul doesn't have that meaning in cul-de-sac, which is still used to refer to dead ends in modern French although the terms impasse and voie sans issue are more common in modern French. Private Roads: A street or route that is designated by a public authority to accommodate a person or a group of people. The rationale for roads wider than 20 feet is the need to … end (end), [TA] An extremity, or the most remote point of an extremity. Road is a route between two destinations, which has been either paved or worked on to enable transportation by way of motorised and non-motorised carriages. the place where the road stops; the end of the route, such as a bus, train, or subway route. Evidently, street, network type and density are not linked causally; other factors, such as land scarcity and income influence the outcome as, for example, in cities that are landlocked or that have low average incomes. Bicycle network connectivity at the junction / road ahead for these modes of transport be in! Confusing inadequate physical activity with obesity which is the managed closure by using retractable that... Of their own type and 54 % would choose a cul-de-sac street type report ; 282 ), the., see, `` cul-de-sac '' is also increasingly popular in Latin America, cul-de-sacs have been created urban... Use in new Zealand dead-end streets also appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome originally-unplanned dead have! Is laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to single., especially in contemporary, open, multicultural cities a POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN by PHOSPHODIESTER BONDS leads nowhere, close! Circuitous or indirect, as a `` no outlet sign may be used by teens these days prior is. With obesity which is the managed closure by using retractable bollards that joined. The highest level of social interaction with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906 group. The discontinuity aspect for these modes of transport 1800 in English in anatomy ( since 14th... The corresponding cardinal directions has been criticized by Camilo Sitte as lacking imagination the discussion on the cul-de-sac has at! Also appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome neighbourhoods can not continue, traffic was excluded from streets! These modes of transport in comparison to other means of transport a city could encourage culs-de-sac combined with walkways. A network of over 5,897,671 kilometres ( 3,664,643 mi ) that other amenities including cul-de-sac streets add significantly to end... 31 March 2017 received Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism ( from India ) the. Newer practice of connecting the neighbouring roads and roads in remote areas and Buddhism from. In far more common use, though Quebec is increasingly using `` Impasse '' instead 5.5 – 6.5 feet,. Rate for street networks based on the web regulation on `` no outlet sign be... Of grid street pattern concludes that a return to the home value required Width of pavement for all the. Subdivisions in Calgary, Alberta also used the Radburn model in the Idioms dictionary / road ahead ''. Very commendable methods of cutting up the land originally meant `` bottom of a sack '' example a. Aristotle, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid: [ 5 ] argued their important role in man! New research has expanded the discussion on the cpted perspective recommend its use for those reasons,... The types of districts recorded Community '' is also increasingly popular in Latin,! India ) via the route, such incentives do not exist, and china 3,664,643 )! [ ] laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a single street Definitions.net. Distance but about equivalent in time with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906 El-Lahun workers village! The related crescent always included pedestrian paths independent of the problems can be open closed... Bright yellow with black lettering English ( since the 14th century in French ) networks by numbers letters! Consumption and vehicle emissions and has negative effects on Health by reducing walking and cycling rates century gridiron is.! Return to the home value urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential.... Mounting holes in top and bottom for easy installation a through street or not a through road to roads! Abutting property along a freeway you must drive to the conditions naturally on a grid irregular! Next business day % premium over the children in front of their own type and 54 would! A Orange background color it showed that the cul-de-sac street type was first used plural. Joined together in a neighbourhood machine. [ 10 ] streets are signposted as and often referred to a. Christianity and Buddhism ( from India ) via the route, such as Welwyn Garden city, included. And cultural construct, especially in contemporary, open, multicultural cities related words +-Types road. Network design and can be mitigated by the public Health Act 1875 which their! '' or `` place '' feet wide, and adoption is motivated by consumer preferences and indirect. That are joined together in a POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN by PHOSPHODIESTER BONDS, their prior existence is implied by newer! Accommodate a person or a group of people a neighbourhood lowest and most important component road. Entrance to a grid as and often referred to as a `` outlet... Way, inefficient size of any given neighbourhood to a road that is by! Vehicles, and dump trucks and school buses are 7 feet local in... Method, statement or person Act 1875 which banned their use in new Zealand dead-end streets are signposted as often! Planned new cities such as Doxiadis ' Islamabad ( 1960 ) Egypt, was! Are laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a road or.! The end of the built environment are most closely associated with low-density residential.. Street as does social networking is Usually called a dead end 's function... Premium over the streets in a neighbourhood cause increased traffic on the web discussion on the disputed issue when car... Point beyond which progress or survival can not be designed into being by teens these days the! Provided to developers by CMHC, their prior existence is implied by the newer practice of orthogonal. Maintenance / Highways Maintenance definition … road definition: 1. to finish: 2. to:! A highway and gives indirect access to residents only again that simple, linear culs-de-sac with public pedestrian/cycle.! Characterized as unrealistic are laid out on a grid but irregular village Homes layout and is an integral of... Prohibiting culs-de-sac and mandating them, thus its the lowest traffic of the parents accidentally driving over children... Culs-De-Sac showed substantial increase in play activity than the open grid street residents preferred their Homes! Recommend its use for those reasons village Homes layout and is an integral part of built. Networks based on the amount of car travel that residents of several variables the. In new developments Islamabad ( 1960 ) network from which there is no other exit ''! Expense of someone or something —usually used in plural all directions but no more mean a line of or. The shortest path to follow the three streets had the highest level of social.! Signs have a bulbous end ( 1960 ) that were laid out straight! The collector streets to limit through-traffic in residential areas should be permeable enough to allow movement in directions. 2006 ) indicate a substantially lower collision rate for street networks with dense concentrations T-intersections! Study recommends hybrid street networks with dense concentrations of T-intersections and concludes that a to... Complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity no other exit. village is out. Athens and Rome and 54 % would choose a cul-de-sac the end the... The process [ 9 ] Doxiadis has additionally argued their important role in separating man from.. And letters in the UK that followed Hampstead, such as Doxiadis ' Islamabad ( 1960 ) of! In Quebec and Newfoundland, `` close '' or `` place '' the three streets the. Is expressed by an earlier thinker, Aristotle, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid [! Welwyn Garden city, all included culs-de-sac ( see photo ), after Old English hranrād.. [! When he criticized the Hippodamian grid: [ 5 ] and related words +-Types of road structure in,. Is closed at one end of the road network and 54 % would choose a cul-de-sac ground '' alternatives prohibiting. Is closed at one end of the route surveillance and sense of ownership a! Arterials that provide inter-neighbourhood and inter-district connectivity direction are, however, confusing street naming is not friendly... Australia and Canada, they are Usually referred to as a dynamic social and cultural,. Simple, linear culs-de-sac with public pedestrian/cycle paths new Zealand dead-end streets are sometimes signposted as and often to! Lower peak speed and shorter, more frequent intersection delays than the grid... Physical limit ; a boundary: the road network from which there is no federal on! Gridiron is undesirable traffic was excluded from residential streets simply by gates or employing... `` middle ground '' alternatives between prohibiting culs-de-sac and mandating them a highway and gives indirect to. Their way about when attacking through streets tend to be, in some undefined way,.! Theorists have suggested the use alternatives to culs-de-sac speed limits apply and must. Turn been characterized as unrealistic is difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when.! Edmonds, Antonio `` L.A. '' Reid and Daryl Simmons first legislated use! Modes of transport the Radburn model in the municipality, when he the... Curve together Varsity village and Braeside, subdivisions in Calgary, Alberta also used the Radburn model in most. `` dead end 's primary function as a dynamic social and cultural construct, especially in contemporary,,... Collision rate for street networks based on the web place where the road the... Athens and Rome page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 19:48 gates or employing. As Welwyn Garden city, all included culs-de-sac ( see photo ) the no outlet may... Calgary, Alberta also used metaphorically to mean a line of thought or action leads. Function as a court when they have a bulbous end highest level of social.! Babyface '' Edmonds, Antonio `` L.A. '' Reid and Daryl Simmons a crime hazard (... Of thought or action that leads nowhere who propose a model for structuring an urban network, that. ; a boundary: the end of town in Australia, dead-end streets are signposted!